- Space Plasma Physics
- Geomagnetically Trapped Radiation
- B.S., California Institute of Technology (Physics, 1950)
- M.S., University of Wisconsin (Physics, 1951)
- Ph.D., University Wisconsin (Physics, 1953)
Specific Research Interests
- Energetic ions and electrons in planetary magnetospheres
- Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory (1953-1956)
- Lockheed Palo Alto Reserch Laboratory (1956-1992)
- Stanford University (1986-present)
- Fellow of American Geophysical Union, Fellow of American Physical Society.
- Co-investigator on Photometric Ionospheric X-ray Imaging Experiment and on the Spectrometer for Energetic Particles flown on the NASA International Solar Terrestrial Physics Mission.
- Author or co-author of 80 scientific publications, two books.